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Oracle PL/SQL: IF-THEN-ELSIF Statement vs. Case statement , CASE Expression vs. Decode Function Options
codeling
Posted: Thursday, October 13, 2016 9:11:04 AM

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IF Statement

The IF statement lets you execute a sequence of statements conditionally. That is, whether the sequence is executed or not depends on the value of a condition. There are three forms of IF statements: IF-THEN, IF-THEN-ELSE, and IF-THEN-ELSIF. The CASE statement is a compact way to evaluate a single condition and choose between many alternative actions.

IF-THEN Statement

The simplest form of IF statement associates a condition with a sequence of statements enclosed by the keywords THEN and END IF (not ENDIF), as follows:

IF condition THEN
   sequence_of_statements
END IF;

 

The sequence of statements is executed only if the condition is true. If the condition is false or null, the IF statement does nothing. In either case, control passes to the next statement. An example follows:

IF sales > quota THEN
   compute_bonus(empid);
   UPDATE payroll SET pay = pay + bonus WHERE empno = emp_id;
END IF;

 

You might want to place brief IF statements on a single line, as in

IF x > y THEN high := x; END IF;

IF-THEN-ELSE Statement

The second form of IF statement adds the keyword ELSE followed by an alternative sequence of statements, as follows:

IF condition THEN
   sequence_of_statements1
ELSE
   sequence_of_statements2
END IF;

 

The sequence of statements in the ELSE clause is executed only if the condition is false or null. Thus, the ELSE clause ensures that a sequence of statements is executed. In the following example, the first UPDATE statement is executed when the condition is true, but the second UPDATE statement is executed when the condition is false or null:

IF trans_type = 'CR' THEN
   UPDATE accounts SET balance = balance + credit WHERE ...
ELSE
   UPDATE accounts SET balance = balance - debit WHERE ...
END IF;

 

The THEN and ELSE clauses can include IF statements. That is, IF statements can be nested, as the following example shows:

IF trans_type = 'CR' THEN
   UPDATE accounts SET balance = balance + credit WHERE ...
ELSE
   IF new_balance >= minimum_balance THEN
      UPDATE accounts SET balance = balance - debit WHERE ...
   ELSE
      RAISE insufficient_funds;
   END IF;
END IF;

IF-THEN-ELSIF Statement

Sometimes you want to select an action from several mutually exclusive alternatives. The third form of IF statement uses the keyword ELSIF (not ELSEIF) to introduce additional conditions, as follows:

IF condition1 THEN
   sequence_of_statements1
ELSIF condition2 THEN
   sequence_of_statements2
ELSE
   sequence_of_statements3
END IF;

 

If the first condition is false or null, the ELSIF clause tests another condition. An IF statement can have any number of ELSIF clauses; the final ELSE clause is optional. Conditions are evaluated one by one from top to bottom. If any condition is true, its associated sequence of statements is executed and control passes to the next statement. If all conditions are false or null, the sequence in the ELSE clause is executed. Consider the following example:

BEGIN
   ...
   IF sales > 50000 THEN
      bonus := 1500;
   ELSIF sales > 35000 THEN
      bonus := 500;
   ELSE
      bonus := 100;
   END IF;
   INSERT INTO payroll VALUES (emp_id, bonus, ...);
END;

 

If the value of sales is larger than 50000, the first and second conditions are true. Nevertheless, bonus is assigned the proper value of 1500 because the section is never tested. When the first condition is true, its associated statement is executed and control passes to the INSERT statement.

Sponsor
Posted: Thursday, October 13, 2016 9:11:04 AM
codeling
Posted: Thursday, October 13, 2016 9:13:23 AM

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CASE Statement

Like the IF statement, the CASE statement selects one sequence of statements to execute. However, to select the sequence, the CASE statement uses a selector rather than multiple Boolean expressions. To compare the IF and CASE statements, consider the following code that outputs descriptions of school grades:

IF grade = 'A' THEN
   dbms_output.put_line('Excellent');
ELSIF grade = 'B' THEN
   dbms_output.put_line('Very Good');
ELSIF grade = 'C' THEN
   dbms_output.put_line('Good');
ELSIF grade = 'D' THEN
   dbms_output. put_line('Fair');
ELSIF grade = 'F' THEN
   dbms_output.put_line('Poor');
ELSE
   dbms_output.put_line('No such grade');
END IF;

Notice the five Boolean expressions. In each instance, we test whether the same variable, grade, is equal to one of five values: 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', or 'F'. Let us rewrite the preceding code using the CASE statement, as follows:

CASE grade
   WHEN 'A' THEN dbms_output.put_line('Excellent');
   WHEN 'B' THEN dbms_output.put_line('Very Good');
   WHEN 'C' THEN dbms_output.put_line('Good');
   WHEN 'D' THEN dbms_output.put_line('Fair');
   WHEN 'F' THEN dbms_output.put_line('Poor');
   ELSE dbms_output.put_line('No such grade');
END CASE;

The CASE statement begins with the keyword CASE. The keyword is followed by a selector, which is the variable grade in the last example. The selector expression can be arbitrarily complex. For example, it can contain function calls. Usually, however, it consists of a single variable. The selector expression is evaluated only once. The value it yields can have any PL/SQL datatype other than BLOB, BFILE, an object type, a PL/SQL record, an index-by-table, a varray, or a nested table.

The selector is followed by one or more WHEN clauses, which are checked sequentially. The value of the selector determines which clause is executed. If the value of the selector equals the value of a WHEN-clause expression, that WHEN clause is executed. For instance, in the last example, if grade equals 'C', the program outputs 'Good'. Execution never falls through; if any WHEN clause is executed, control passes to the next statement.

The ELSE clause works similarly to the ELSE clause in an IF statement. In the last example, if the grade is not one of the choices covered by a WHEN clause, the ELSE clause is selected, and the phrase 'No such grade' is output. The ELSE clause is optional. However, if you omit the ELSE clause, PL/SQL adds the following implicit ELSE clause:

ELSE RAISE CASE_NOT_FOUND;

If the CASE statement selects the implicit ELSE clause, PL/SQL raises the predefined exception CASE_NOT_FOUND. So, there is always a default action, even when you omit the ELSE clause.

The keywords END CASE terminate the CASE statement. These two keywords must be separated by a space. The CASE statement has the following form:

[<<label_name>>]
CASE selector
   WHEN expression1 THEN sequence_of_statements1;
   WHEN expression2 THEN sequence_of_statements2;
   ...
   WHEN expressionN THEN sequence_of_statementsN;
  [ELSE sequence_of_statementsN+1;]
END CASE [label_name];

Like PL/SQL blocks, CASE statements can be labeled. The label, an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets, must appear at the beginning of the CASE statement. Optionally, the label name can also appear at the end of the CASE statement.

Exceptions raised during the execution of a CASE statement are handled in the usual way. That is, normal execution stops and control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram.

codeling
Posted: Tuesday, May 16, 2017 12:03:48 PM

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Posts: 915
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The CASE statement is more readable and more efficient. So, when possible, rewrite lengthy IF-THEN-ELSIF statements as CASE statements.

codeling
Posted: Tuesday, May 16, 2017 1:01:01 PM

Rank:Advanced Member
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Joined: 12/11/2015
Posts: 915
Points: 3843

CASE Expressions

An alternative to the CASE statement is the CASE expression, where each WHEN clause is an expression.

A CASE expression selects a result from one or more alternatives, and returns the result. The CASE expression uses a selector, an expression whose value determines which alternative to return. A CASE expression has the following form:

CASE selector
   WHEN expression1 THEN result1
   WHEN expression2 THEN result2
   ...
   WHEN expressionN THEN resultN
  [ELSE resultN+1]
END;

The selector is followed by one or more WHEN clauses, which are checked sequentially. The value of the selector determines which clause is executed. The first WHEN clause that matches the value of the selector determines the result value, and subsequent WHEN clauses are not evaluated. An example follows:

DECLARE
   grade CHAR(1) := 'B';
   appraisal VARCHAR2(20);
BEGIN
   appraisal :=
      CASE grade
         WHEN 'A' THEN 'Excellent'
         WHEN 'B' THEN 'Very Good'
         WHEN 'C' THEN 'Good'
         WHEN 'D' THEN 'Fair'
         WHEN 'F' THEN 'Poor'
         ELSE 'No such grade'
      END;
END;

The optional ELSE clause works similarly to the ELSE clause in an IF statement. If the value of the selector is not one of the choices covered by a WHEN clause, the ELSE clause is executed. If no ELSE clause is provided and none of the WHEN clauses are matched, the expression returns NULL.

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