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Working with HTML5 and CSS3


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@2021-01-14 13:05:21

HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web. It is the fifth and last major HTML version that is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation.

HTML5 was first released in a public-facing form on 22 January 2008, with a major update and "W3C Recommendation" status in October 2014. Its goals were to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia and other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as web browsers, parsers, etc., without XHTML's rigidity; and to remain backward-compatible with older software. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4 but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML.

CSS3 builds upon the principles about styles, selectors and the cascade that we know so well from earlier versions of CSS. It adds loads of new features, including new selectors, pseudo-classes and properties. Using these new features it becomes a lot easier to set up your layout.


@2021-01-14 17:02:16

HTML5 Elements

The following list contains all elements belonging to the latest HTML5.

Root Element

  • <html>: Defines the root of an HTML document.

Document Metadata Elements

The document metadata elements describe the document or provide information about how the document should be processed by the browser.

  • <head>: Defines the head portion of the document that contains information about the document such as title.

  • <title>: Defines a title for the document.

  • <base>: Defines the base URL for all relative URLs in a document.

  • <link>: Defines the relationship between the current document and an external resource.

  • <meta>: Provides structured metadata about the document content.

  • <style>: Inserts style information (commonly CSS) into the head of a document.

Scripting Elements

  • <script>: Places script in the document for client-side processing.

  • <noscript>: Defines alternative content to display when the browser doesn't support scripting.

Section Elements

The section elements are also referred to as semantic elements because the tag name describes the purpose of the element and the type of content it contains.

  • <body>: Defines the document's body.

  • <section>: Defines a section of a document, such as header, footer etc.

  • <nav>: Defines a section of navigation links.

  • <article>: Defines an article.

  • <aside>: Defines some content loosely related to the page content.

  • <h1> to <h6>: Defines HTML headings.

  • <header>: Represents the header of a document or a section.

  • <footer>: Represents the footer of a document or a section.

  • <address>: Specifies the author's contact information.

Grouping Content Elements

Within sectioning elements are grouping elements. Each grouping element organizes similar content into a distinct group, much like a paragraph groups sentences that share a common theme.

  • <p>: Defines a paragraph.

  • <hr>: Produce a horizontal line.

  • <br>: roduces a single line break.

  • <pre>: Defines a block of preformatted text.

  • <dialog>: Defines a dialog box or subwindow.

  • <blockquote>: Represents a section that is quoted from another source.

  • <ol>: Defines an ordered list.

  • <ul>: efines an unordered list.

  • <li>: Defines a list item.

  • <dl>: Defines a description list.

  • <dt>: Defines a term (an item) in a description list.

  • <dd>: represents the description, definition, or value, part of a term-description group in a description list (dl element), and the discourse, or quote, part in a conversation (dialog element).

Text-Level Semantics Elements

Within each grouping element are text-level elements, which mark phrases or characters within a paragraph. Unlike sectioning or grouping elements that mark a self-contained block of content, text-level elements appear in line with the surrounding content and are known as inline elements. For example, the italicized or boldface text in this paragraph is considered inline content because it appears alongside the surrounding text.

  • <a>: Defines a hyperlink.

  • <q>: Defines a short inline quotation.

  • <cite>: Indicates a citation or reference to another source.

  • <em>: Defines emphasized text.

  • <strong>: Indicate strongly emphasized text.

  • <small>: isplays text in a smaller size.

  • <mark>: Represents text highlighted for reference purposes.

  • <dfn>: Specifies a definition.

  • <abbr>: Defines an abbreviated form of a longer word or phrase.

  • <time>: Represents a time and/or date.

  • <progress>: Represents the completion progress of a task.

  • <meter>: Represents a scalar measurement within a known range.

  • <code>: pecifies text as computer code.

  • <var>: efines a variable.

  • <samp>: pecifies text as sample output from a computer program.

  • <kbd>: Specifies text as keyboard input.

  • <sub>: Defines subscripted text.

  • <sup>: Defines superscripted text.

  • <span>: Defines an inline styleless section in a document.

  • <i>: Displays text in an italic style.

  • <b>: Displays text in a bold style.

  • <bdo>: Overrides the current text direction.

  • <ruby>: Represents a ruby annotation.

  • <rt>: Defines the pronunciation of character presented in a ruby annotations.

  • <rp>: Provides fall-back parenthesis for browsers that that don't support ruby annotations.

Edit Elements

  • <ins>: Defines a block of text that has been inserted into a document.

  • <del>: Represents text that has been deleted from the document.

Embedded Content Elements

  • <figure>: Represents a figure illustrated as part of the document.

  • <img>: Represents an image.

  • <iframe>: Displays a URL in an inline frame.

  • <embed>: Embeds external application, typically multimedia content like audio or video into an HTML document.

  • <object>: Defines an embedded object.

  • <param>: Defines a parameter for an object or applet element.

  • <video>: Embeds video content in an HTML document.

  • <audio>: Embeds a sound, or an audio stream in an HTML document.

  • <source>: Defines alternative media resources for the media elements like <audio> or <video>.

  • <canvas>: Defines a region in the document, which can be used to draw graphics on the fly via scripting (usually JavaScript).

  • <map>: Defines a client-side image-map.

  • <area>: Defines a specific area within an image map.

Tabular Data Elements

  • <table>: Defines a data table.

  • <caption>: Defines the caption or title of the table.

  • <colgroup>: Specifies attributes for multiple columns in a table.

  • <col>: Defines attribute values for one or more columns in a table.

  • <tbody>: Groups a set of rows defining the main body of the table data.

  • <thead>: Groups a set of rows that describes the column labels of a table.

  • <tfoot>: Groups a set of rows summarizing the columns of the table.

  • <tr>: Defines a row of cells in a table.

  • <td>: Defines a cell in a table.

  • <th>: Defines a header cell in a table.

Form Elements

  • <form>: Defines an HTML form for user input.

  • <fieldset>: Specifies a set of related form fields.

  • <label>: Defines a label for an <input> control.

  • <input>: Defines an input control.

  • <button>: Creates a clickable button.

  • <select>: Defines a selection list within a form.

  • <datalist>: Represents a set of pre-defined options for an <input> element.

  • <optgroup>: Defines a group of related options in a selection list.

  • <option>: Defines an option in a selection list.

  • <textarea>: Defines a multi-line text input control (text area).

  • <output>: Represents the result of a calculation.

Interactive Elements

  • <details>: Represents a widget from which the user can obtain additional information or controls on-demand.

  • <command>:  Represents a command that the user can invoke.

  • <bb>: Represents a user agent command that the user can invoke.

  • <menu>: Represents a list of commands.

Miscellaneous Elements

  • <legend>: Defines a caption for a <fieldset> element.

  • <div>: Specifies a division or a section in a document.

@2021-01-15 15:05:39

Declaring your web page as HTML5

We recommend that you declare a true DOCTYPE within your web page. Within the examples here, we've declared our applications as HTML5 using the simple HTML5 DOCTYPE as shown below:

<!DOCTYPE html>

Most current browsers will render content that is declared with this DOCTYPE in "standards mode" which means that your application should be more cross-browser compliant. The DOCTYPE is also designed to degrade gracefully; browsers that don't understand it will ignore it, and use "quirks mode" to display their content.

@2021-02-08 22:21:31

<noscript> Element

In this HTML5 page example, a <script> tag is placed within the <body> tag to reference a javascript file called examples.js. Following that is a <nonscript> tag that will display alternate content if the <script> tag does not run (ie: either the browser's scripting has been disabled or the script type is not supported).

<!doctype html>

<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>noscript element example</title>

<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<script src="/scripts/examples.js"></script>
  <p>This is a <a href="examples.html">this is alternate content link if scripting is disabled</a>.</p>



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