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Using SQL*Plus in Oracle Options
codeling
Posted: Monday, February 22, 2016 2:54:12 PM

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SQL*Plus Command Summary

 Command  Description

@ ("at" sign)

Runs the SQL*PLus statements in the specified script. The script can be called from the local file system or from a web server.

@@ (double "at" sign)

Runs a script. This command is similar to the @ ("at" sign) command. It is useful for running nested scripts because it looks for the specified script in the same path as the script from which it was called.

/ (slash)

Executes the SQL command or PL/SQL block.

ACCEPT

Reads a line of input and stores it in a given user variable.

APPEND

Adds specified text to the end of the current line in the buffer.

ARCHIVE LOG

Starts or stops the automatic archiving of online redo log files, manually (explicitly) archives specified redo log files, or displays information about redo log files.

ATTRIBUTE

Specifies display characteristics for a given attribute of an Object Type column, and lists the current display characteristics for a single attribute or all attributes.

BREAK

Specifies where and how formatting will change in a report, or lists the current break definition.

BTITLE

Places and formats a specified title at the bottom of each report page, or lists the current BTITLE definition.

CHANGE

Changes text on the current line in the buffer.

CLEAR

Resets or erases the current clause or setting for the specified option, such as BREAKS or COLUMNS.

COLUMN

Specifies display characteristics for a given column, or lists the current display characteristics for a single column or for all columns.

COMPUTE

Calculates and prints summary lines, using various standard computations, on subsets of selected rows, or lists all COMPUTE definitions.

CONNECT

Connects a given user to Oracle.

COPY

Copies results from a query to a table in a local or remote database.

DEFINE

Specifies a user variable and assigns it a CHAR value, or lists the value and variable type of a single variable or all variables.

DEL

Deletes one or more lines of the buffer.

DESCRIBE

Lists the column definitions for the specified table, view, or synonym or the specifications for the specified function or procedure.

DISCONNECT

Commits pending changes to the database and logs the current user off Oracle, but does not exit SQL*Plus.

EDIT

Invokes a host operating system text editor on the contents of the specified file or on the contents of the buffer.

EXECUTE

Executes a single PL/SQL statement.

EXIT

Terminates SQL*Plus and returns control to the operating system.

GET

Loads a host operating system file into the SQL buffer.

HELP

Accesses the SQL*Plus help system.

HOST

Executes a host operating system command without leaving SQL*Plus.

INPUT

Adds one or more new lines after the current line in the buffer.

LIST

Lists one or more lines of the SQL buffer.

PASSWORD

Allows a password to be changed without echoing the password on an input device.

PAUSE

Displays the specified text, then waits for the user to press [Return].

PRINT

Displays the current value of a bind variable.

PROMPT

Sends the specified message to the user's screen.

QUIT

Terminates SQL*Plus and returns control to the operating system. QUIT is identical to EXIT.

RECOVER

Performs media recovery on one or more tablespaces, one or more datafiles, or the entire database.

REMARK

Begins a comment in a script.

REPFOOTER

Places and formats a specified report footer at the bottom of each report, or lists the current REPFOOTER definition.

REPHEADER

Places and formats a specified report header at the top of each report, or lists the current REPHEADER definition.

RUN

Lists and executes the SQL command or PL/SQL block currently stored in the SQL buffer.

SAVE

Saves the contents of the SQL buffer in a host operating system file (a script).

SET

Sets a system variable to alter the SQL*Plus environment for your current session.

SHOW

Shows the value of a SQL*Plus system variable or the current SQL*Plus environment.

SHUTDOWN

Shuts down a currently running Oracle instance.

SPOOL

Stores query results in an operating system file and, optionally, sends the file to a printer.

START

Executes the contents of the specified script. The script can only be called from a url.

STARTUP

Starts an Oracle instance and optionally mounts and opens a database.

STORE

Saves attributes of the current SQL*Plus environment in a host operating system file (a script).

TIMING

Records timing data for an elapsed period of time, lists the current timer's title and timing data, or lists the number of active timers.

TTITLE

Places and formats a specified title at the top of each report page, or lists the current TTITLE definition.

UNDEFINE

Deletes one or more user variables that you defined either explicitly (with the DEFINE command) or implicitly (with an argument to the START command).

VARIABLE

Declares a bind variable that can be referenced in PL/SQL.

WHENEVER OSERROR

Performs the specified action Exits SQL*Plus if an operating system command generates an error.

WHENEVER SQLERROR

Performs the specified action Exits SQL*Plus if a SQL command or PL/SQL block generates an error.

Sponsor
Posted: Monday, February 22, 2016 2:54:12 PM
codeling
Posted: Monday, February 22, 2016 4:24:10 PM

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Posts: 784
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Using Substitution Variables

Substitution variables are of two types, command line and embedded.

Command Line Substitution Variable

A command line substitution variable is of the form &n where "n" is an integer in the range of 1-8. These are used to allow specifying arguments on the SQLPLUS command line at login. For example, the line from the code is:

select * from dba_tables where owner=upper('&1');

The &1 would be replaced by the first argument following the userid and program name on the command line. If the procedure name is TABLE_REP then the command would be:

SQLPLUS SYSTEM/MANAGER @TABLE_REP SCOTT

and "SCOTT" would be substituted for &1 in the code.

Embedded Variable

An embedded variable is either prompted for using the PROMPT....ACCEPT command or is automatically prompted for when encountered in your code. Embedded variables are usually named variables. For example, the line from the code is:

select * from dba_tables where owner=upper('&table_owner');

When the code is executed the SQLPLUS engine will prompt you for:

Enter value for table_owner:

and whatever you enter will be substituted for the variable. If the substitution has to be made several times you can either use the PROMPT...ACCEPT and a single ampersand on each incidence of the variable or use double ampersands on each incidence of the variable.

codeling
Posted: Tuesday, February 23, 2016 10:16:38 AM

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Using Spool Command

The spool command in Oracle is used within SQL*Plus to direct the output of any query to a server-side flat file.

Once spool is set, SQL*Plus will continue to spool the output until the command SPOOL OFF.

The spool command is very useful when you want to generate SQL from the data dictionary.  Here is an example of a SQL*Plus spool command:

spool 'c:\data\myfile.txt'

select table_name from dba_tables where table_name like 'CLAIM%';

spool off;

Do not forget to include the semicolon at the end of the SQL statement.

How to add SYSDATE to a spool file name?

To write dates into spool comands, for example, say that you want to run a SQL*Plus script where it spools to a file name that contains SYSDATE, you can select SYSDATE into a variable name using the DUAL pseudo-table, and execute the name as part of the spool command:

column col_outfilename noprint new_value outfilename;

select 'c:\data\myfile-' || to_char(sysdate, 'yymmdd') || '.txt' col_outfilename from dual;

spool '&outfilename'

select table_name from dba_tables where table_name like 'CLAIM%';

spool off
codeling
Posted: Tuesday, February 23, 2016 3:11:29 PM

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Posts: 784
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PROMPT Command

The PROMPT command in SQL*Plus outputs a line of data to the screen.

PROMPT

PROMPT Please enter a valid department

PROMPT For example:  10, 20, 30, 40

SELECT DEPARTMENT_NAME FROM EMP_DETAILS_VIEW

WHERE DEPARTMENT_ID = &NEWDEPT

You can enter a department number at the prompt Department ID?>. By default, SQL*Plus lists the line containing &NEWDEPT before and after substitution, and then displays the department name corresponding to the number entered at the Department ID?> prompt.

Please enter a valid department

For example:  10, 20, 30, 40

Department ID?>

You can use SET VERIFY OFF to prevent this behavior.

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